The knee is one of the largest joints in the body. It consists of three connecting bones. The femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone) and the patella (knee cap)(Figure 1) The joint connects one long bone to another relying heavily on ligaments and surrounding muscles for stability and strength. (Figure 2) The most important muscle in stabilizing the knee joint is the quadriceps muscle which straighten the knee. The hamstring muscles are the main muscles that bend the knee.
The hip joint is designed for stability and weight bearing rather than movement as seen in the shoulder joint. The hip joints stability begins with a deep socket, additional stability provided by strong ligaments, tendons and muscles. The labrum of the hip is a cartilage structure that adds further stability to the hip joint.
Bursae are fluid filled sacs located around the hip joint. Their function is to lessen the friction between tendon and bone and ligament and bone
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